Thursday, 23 June 2011

Destinations For Delta Air Lines


Further information: Delta Air Lines destinations and Delta Connection destinations
Delta operates 1,534 flights per day. Delta Connection has 2,533 daily flights. Delta, Delta Connection, and other flights from the SkyTeam partners have 6,795 daily flights.
Delta Air Lines, along with Air France, British Airways, Emirates Airlines, Korean Air, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, and United Airlines, is one of the few airlines that fly to all six inhabited continents.



On August 5, 2008, Delta announced it would be installing the Aircell mobile broadband network, Gogo. This system enables customers traveling with Wi-Fi enabled devices, such as laptops, smartphones and PDAs, to access the Internet. Pricing varies based on length of flight and/or length of pass.
Gogo was initially offered on Delta's fleet of McDonnell Douglas MD-88 and MD-90 aircraft but has expanded to the remaining domestic fleet of Airbus A319 and A320, as well as Boeing 737, 757 and 767 aircraft. Delta has the largest fleet of Wi-Fi-equipped aircraft in the world.
Delta completed Wi-Fi installations on its domestic mainline fleet of 549 aircraft on Nov. 15, 2010. Wi-Fi will be installed on additional aircraft, prior to service, as they are acquired or returned from storage.
In November 2010, Delta announced that it would be bringing Wi-Fi service to its regional jet service operated by Delta Connection carriers. The expansion will include all regional jets with a first class cabin (CRJ 700, CRJ 900 and Embraer 175), 223 jets in all. This includes all shuttle flights between New York-LaGuardia and Boston, Chicago-O'Hare and Washington, D.C. This expansion is planning to be complete by the end of 2011.

In-flight entertainment and AVOD

In the 1960s audio programming was introduced where passengers wore headphones consisting of hollow tubes piping in music. These were installed in some Delta aircraft. Some early wide-bodied aircraft, including the L-1011 fleet, had films projected on to the cabin bulkhead. The film projection system on the L-1011s was replaced by CRT-based projectors in the early 1990s. Also during the same time period, CRT monitors over the aisles were added to the 757 fleet. The MD-90 introduced Delta's first IFE system with LCD monitors in 1995, and the 777 introduced Delta's first in-seat video system in 1999, initially using the Rockwell Collins Total Entertainment System. Delta's first all-digital IFE system with AVOD (Panasonic eFX) was first introduced in 2003 on Delta's former low-cost subsidiary, Song. The Rockwell Collins IFE system on the 777s was replaced by the Panasonic eFX system in 2007. The Panasonic eFX system is trademarked by Delta as Delta on Demand.

Audio and video are available on all aircraft except for the Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD-88, Douglas DC-9 and some Boeing 757-200s inherited from the former Northwest Airlines and McDonnell Douglas MD-90s, as well as Delta Connection aircraft. BusinessElite cabins on the internationally-configured Boeing 767-300ERs, Boeing 767-400ER and the Boeing 777-200ER use the all-digital Panasonic eFX AVOD system. Domestic Boeing 767-300s, Boeing 737-700s, as well as 48 transcontinental Boeing 757-200s and 30 Boeing 737-800s using the Panasonic eFX system, also feature live television via Dish Network in both first class and economy. Delta's new 777-200LR aircraft feature the Panasonic eX2 system (which has a greater storage capacity over the eFX), as well as larger personal video screens. The Airbus A330s and Boeing 747s feature the Panasonic 3000i AVOD system in BusinessElite. On the A330 fleet, this AVOD system is also available in economy class.

In economy class, Panasonic eFX system (without the satellite TV product) is also found on the 777-200ER, 767-400ER, and select 767-300ER aircraft. The 767-400ER fleet initially featured the Rockwell Collins TES system, but it only featured in-seat video (non-AVOD) in the first class section of the aircraft; the economy class section only featured LCDs over the aisles. This system was phased out in 2009, being replaced by the Panasonic eFX AVOD system when the last of the 767-400ERs were converted from domestic to international use. CRT projectors were originally featured in economy class on Boeing 767-300s, with the international 767-300ERs also featuring ceiling-mounted CRT displays over the aisles, which were replaced by LCD monitors. Some Boeing 737-800s, as well as all Boeing 757-300s and McDonnell Douglas MD-90s feature systems with drop-down LCD displays below the overhead bins.

When Delta's ex-TWA ETOPS 757s were first delivered, they featured a system made by Sony Transcom (a former subsidiary of Sony now sold to Rockwell Collins) system that was factory installed for TWA. The system featured overhead drop-down LCD monitors similar to Delta's non-Transcon 737-800s and MD-90s. Delta replaced the Sony Transcom system with the Panasonic eFX system featuring in-seat video and AVOD at the same time as the new BusinessElite seats and slimline economy class seats were installed.

In the spring of 2010, Delta installed the Panasonic eFX AVOD system in Economy on six 767-300ERs that are used on routes that are 12 hours or longer. Delta also announced it will be installing AVOD in Economy class on 52 767-300ER and all Boeing 747 aircraft over the next 3 years.

On July 27, 2010, it was announced that Delta would be the launch customer of the new eX2 AVOD system with the Eco 9i Integrated Smart Monitor, a new ultra-lightweight IFE system by Panasonic Avionics Corporation and Weber Aircraft LLC.Currently, there are plans to install the systems on the 747-400, 767-300ER, and MD-90 fleets.

Travel classes


BusinessElite is Delta's international business class, available on the Boeing 767-300ER, 777-200ER, 777-200LR, 767-400ER, and select 757-200 aircraft. Delta's standard recliner BusinessElite seats (B/E Aerospace Millennium recliners) on Delta's 767-300ER fleet have 60 inches (1,500 mm) of pitch, 160 degrees of recline, and 18.5 inches of width. Passengers in the BusinessElite cabin receive free meals, refreshments, alcohol and an amenity kit. All seats are equipped with a personal, on demand In-Flight-Entertainment (IFE) system, universal power-ports, a moveable reading light, and a folding work table. On the ex-TWA/AA ETOPS 757s, a similar model of BusinessElite seat was introduced in 2008. These seats are off-the-shelf Recaro CL 4420 seats and feature a built-in massage feature, 55 inches of pitch and are 20 inches (510 mm) wide. The BusinessElite seats (former World Business Class seats, also made by B/E Aerospace) on the ex-Northwest Airbus A330 and Boeing 747–400 fleet feature 60 inches (1,500 mm) to 61 inches (150 cm) pitch, 178 degrees of recline (though at a sloped position), and either 20.25 (A330) or 20.5 (747) inches of width.

On March 27, 2007, Delta announced that it will convert its entire 767-400ER fleet to an international configuration, featuring a BusinessElite cabin. The conversion was completed in 2009.

Delta introduced full-flat sleeper suites made by Contour Aerospace Limited in its 777-200LR fleet upon delivery, and the 777-200ER fleet have also been retrofitted with them in 2011.

On February 5, 2008, Delta announced that they will be installing a sleeper suite product on the 767-400ER aircraft. Designed by Thompson Aero Seating and manufactured by Contour Aerospace Limited, these sleeper suites (Vantage) use a space-saving design, with the bottom ends of the seats extending under the armrests of the suites in front when in the full horizontal flat bed position. This allows for minimal reduction in capacity compared to most other sleeper suite products, particularly with the 767's narrower fuselage. The suites will be arranged in a 1-2-1 layout, with a total capacity of 40 BusinessElite suites . On November 3, 2008, Delta has announced that the 767-300ER fleet will also get the same sleeper suite product that will be first introduced on the 767-400ER fleet.[43] As of June 2011, all 767-400ERs have been retrofitted with the Thompson Vantage seats in BusinessElite. The 767-300ER fleet is expected to be completed in 2013.
On January 25, 2010, Delta has also announced they will introduce a flat-bed BusinessElite product to the ex-Northwest 747-400 fleet. On September 2, 2010, Delta announced that the 747-400 fleet will get a completely new model of flat-bed sleeper suite, the Cirrus from Weber. On February 7, it was also announced that the ex-Northwest Airbus A330 fleet will also get the Weber Cirrus sleeper suites by 2013.

Domestic First Class

First Class is offered on Airbus A319 and A320, Boeing 737–700, 737–800, 757–200, 757–300 and domestic 767–300, and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-50, MD-88 and MD-90 aircraft. Some CRJ-700s and CRJ-900s, and Embraer 175s operated by Delta Connection carriers also have First Class. Seats range from 18.5–20.75 inches wide, and have between 37–40 inches of pitch. Passengers aboard this class receive free meals, drinks, and alcohol. All 737-800s and (Transcon) 757-200 aircraft have power-ports at each seat.

When the ex-AA/TWA ETOPS 757s were first delivered, they initially featured 22 domestic First Class seats that were originally installed by TWA. On international routes, the aircraft were sold entirely as Economy class. All of the ETOPS 757s now feature Recaro CL 4420 BusinessElite seats.

Economy Comfort Class

Economy Comfort is a recently launched premium economy class offered on international aircraft. The seats have 35 inches (890 mm) of pitch, 50 percent more recline over economy, and are distinguished from the economy class seats with the adjustable headrest being a lighter shade of blue. Additional amenities for Economy Comfort customers include free spirits as well as free HBO programming. Economy Comfort will eventually be featured on all international aircraft. Passengers can upgrade from economy class tickets for $80–$160 one-way and various elite levels of SkyMiles members can have access with discounts or free upgrades. The service further aligns Delta's offerings with their Trans Atlantic joint venture partners with the name and offering matching that of KLM's Economy Comfort product.

International Economy Class

Economy Class is available on all international flights. Seats range from 17 to 18 inches (460 mm) wide, and have between 31 and 33 inches (840 mm) of pitch. A few of the newest 767-300ER and all A330-200, A330-300, 767-400ER, 777-200ER, 777-200LR, and ex-TWA 757-200 aircraft feature economy class seats with moveable headrests. The economy seats on the 777-200ERs, 777-200LRs, ex-TWA 757s, and six 767-300ERs are Weber 5751 slimline which have a high pivot point recline system where the seat bottom moves forward in addition to the seat back tilting backwards when reclining. In the spring of 2010, the Weber 5751 slimline seats were introduced on six 767-300ERs that are used on flights that are 12 hours or longer, and will eventually be installed on the entire 767-300ER and 747-400 fleet.A new model of slimline seat (B/E Aerospace Pinnacle) is planned for the A330 fleet.

Domestic Economy Class

Economy Class is available on all domestic flights. Seats range from 17 to 17.5 inches (440 mm) wide, and have between 30 and 33 inches (840 mm) of pitch. Passengers aboard this class receive free drinks and snacks. As part of Delta's EATS buy on board program, food is available for purchase on all flights 1,500 miles (2,400 km) or more (some flights to Hawaii and Alaska continue to receive free meal service). Alcoholic beverages are available for a charge. The 737–700, 737–800 and domestic 767–300 fleet feature the Weber 5751, however, unlike the Weber 5751 slimline seats on Delta's international aircraft, the seats on the 737-700s, 800s, and domestic 767-300s do not feature moveable headrests. These seats will also eventually be introduced on the MD-88 and MD-90 fleet (first being introduced on the ex-Hello MD-90s), however, no dates have been specified as of now.

Delta operated a previous buy on board starting in 2003 and ending by 2005. The previous program had items from differing providers, depending on the origin and destination of the flight. Items on flights to and from Atlanta had items from the Atlanta Bread Company, while flights from other cities had food from Gate Gourmet.

Environmental Initiatives


Delta Air Lines was presented an award by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Design for the Environment (DfE) program for the airline's use of PreKote, an environmentally friendly, non-hexavalent chromium surface pretreatment on its aircraft.
PreKote Surface Pretreatment is a Pantheon Chemical product and replaces hazardous chemicals traditionally used to improve paint adhesion and prevent corrosion. In addition, PreKote reduces water usage by two-thirds, significantly reduces wastewater treatment and cuts process time.

The environmentally friendly product is also improving Delta’s bottom-line by putting aircraft back in the air sooner. With time improvement of eight to 10 percent, Delta estimates it will save more than $1 million annually by reducing the overall turn time for painting aircraft.


Delta started the industry's first comprehensive in-flight recycling program on June 1, 2007.[58] The initial program involved all domestic in-bound flights to its Atlanta hub, and has since expanded to domestic in-bound flights arriving at Albuquerque, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago-O'Hare, Cleveland, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York-LaGuardia, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, and Washington-Reagan, as well as its hubs at Cincinnati, Detroit, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK and Salt Lake City. Federal regulations require the incineration of international waste.

As of April 22, 2010 the program has recycled 3.7 million pounds newspaper, magazines, cardboard, plastic cups, plastic bottles and aluminum cans. This equates to:
Recycled volume of paper equivalent to 2,413 cubic yards of landfill space

Recycled enough mixed plastic to “save” 605 barrels (96.2 m3) of oil

Recycled roughly 40 million individual aluminum cans

Raised enough funds to build one Habitat for Humanity Home in Atlanta and a second in Cincinnati, with a third home being planned for 2010.

Delta has also had a carpet recycling program since the fall of 2007 that has diverted 221,000 pounds of worn aircraft carpet from Atlanta area landfills through their partnership with Mohawk Aviation Carpet and Mohawk ReCover program. This equates to 70,899 square yards - the equivalent of 15 acres (61,000 m2) of land or the approximate length of 12 American football fields.

Additionally, Delta has an Employee Recycling Center, which was designed to bring recycling opportunity to Atlanta based employees without access to curbside recycling. The facility also manages recyclables generated within the world headquarters itself. The program has diverted 1.6 million pounds of office paper, cardboard, paperboard, plastic bottles/jugs, aluminum cans and tin cans from local landfills. Since the program started in October 2007, it has:

Earned net proceeds of $10,000 donated to Delta's Employee & Retiree Care Fund - a program which aids Delta families in times of crisis

Recycled volume of paper equivalent to 2,175 cubic yards of landfill space

Recycled enough mixed plastic to “save” 94 barrels (14.9 m3) of oil


There have been over a dozen attempted hijackings which resulted in no injuries and the surrender of the often lone hijacker. These incidents are not included. The following are notable hijackings because of fatalities or success in forcing the aircraft to fly to another country:

In 1968, a Delta DC-8 was hijacked to Havana, Cuba. This was the first successful hijacking to Cuba from the U.S. since 1961, and was the start of multiple hijacking attempts to Cuba in the late 1960s. This coincided with the introduction of passenger screening using metal detectors in U.S. airports starting in the late 1960s.

Additional hijackings which resulted in no injuries and the flight landing in Cuba include March 28, 1984 (Delta 357 New Orleans-Dallas 727), August 18, 1983 (Delta 784 Miami-Tampa 727), July 17, 1983 (Delta 722 Miami-Tampa 727), June 11, 1979 (Delta 1061 New York LaGuardia-Fort Lauderdale L1011)

July 31, 1972, a Delta Flight 841, a Detroit to Miami DC-8 flight, was hijacked to Algiers, Algeria by 8 hijackers. The aircraft stopped in Boston to pick up an international navigator, who was wearing only swimming trunks and a shirt. The flight was allowed to return with passengers to the U.S., stopping in Barcelona for refueling.

On February 22, 1974, Samuel Byck, an unemployed tire salesman from Pennsylvania, stormed aboard a Delta Air Lines Flight 523, DC-9 flight at Baltimore Friendship Airport (now Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport) scheduled to fly to Atlanta and shot both pilots, killing the First Officer, Fred Jones. He intended to crash the plane into the White House.[95] After shooting the pilots, the hijacker grabbed a passenger and demanded that she fly the aircraft.

On August 23, 1980, a Delta Air Lines L-1011 on a San Juan to Los Angeles flight was hijacked to Cuba.The hijacker was jailed by Cuban authorities, and all passengers were released unharmed.

On September 13, 1980, a Delta Air Lines New Orleans to Atlanta flight was taken over by two hijackers and forced to fly to Cuba. The flight continued to Atlanta after stopping in Havana. The hijackers were imprisoned by Cuban authorities. One hijacker was released and later sought US residency. The suspect was later arrested by US authorities in 2002and sentenced to prison the following year.

Delta Air Lines

"Delta Air" redirects here. For the defunct German airline, see DBA (airline)

Delta Air Lines, Inc. (NYSE: DAL) is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day. The airline's hub at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is the world's largest, and since 1999 the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic (88 million passengers per year) and number of landings and take-offs largely due to Delta's presence. Delta is a founding member of the SkyTeam alliance.

On October 29, 2008, Delta merged with Northwest Airlines to form the world's largest airline. The carrier will keep this distinction until rivals United Airlines and Continental Airlines achieve a 'Single Operating Certificate' from the FAA.

History of Delta Air Lines

Formed as Huff Daland Dusters, Incorporated, an aerial crop dusting operation, on May 30, 1924, in Macon, Georgia, the company moved to Monroe, Louisiana, in Ouachita Parish in northeastern Louisiana, in 1925, and began acting as a passenger airline in late 1929. Collett E. Woolman purchased the company on September 13, 1928, and renamed it Delta Air Service, with headquarters in Monroe.In the ensuing decades, Delta grew through the addition of routes and the acquisition of other airlines. It transitioned from propeller planes to jets in the 1970s, and entered international competition to Europe in the 1970s and across the Pacific in the 1980s.

Airline operations

Delta, the mainline component of Delta Air Lines, Inc., – serves primarily high-volume domestic flights and long-haul international services.

Comair a regional component of Delta Air Lines, Inc., – serves primarily domestic short to medium haul flights.

Mesaba Airlines – regional component of Northwest acquired in the merger. (Currently owned by Pinnacle)

Compass Airlines – regional component of Northwest acquired in the merger. (Now owned by Trans States)


Delta's corporate headquarters is housed in a corporate campus on the northern boundary of Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, within the city limits of Atlanta. This location has served as Delta's headquarters since 1941, when the company relocated its corporate offices from Monroe, Louisiana to Atlanta.In addition to hosting Delta's corporate headquarters, Hartsfield-Jackson is also the site of Delta's Technical Operations Center, which is the airline's primary fleet maintenance, repair, and overhaul facility.

Delta maintains a large presence in the Twin Cities, with over 12,000 employees in the region as well as significant corporate support functions housed in the former Northwest headquarters in Eagan, including the headquarters of Delta Connection and the company's information technology divisional offices.

Hub information

Current hubs

Delta operates seven domestic hubs and three international hubs.
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol – One of the two European hubs for Delta, in conjunction with SkyTeam partner KLM.

Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport - Service has been greatly cut since the merger with Northwest Airlines, but still remains a hub.

Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport – Second-largest hub for Delta, also serves as the airline's primary Asian gateway for the East Coast of the United States.

Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport – Largest hub for Delta Air Lines, headquarters site.

John F. Kennedy International Airport – Major international gateway hub for Delta.

Memphis International Airport – Delta hub, was originally dismantled but regained hub status after the merger with Northwest. On March 22, 2011, Delta announced plans to trim its Memphis hub by 25%, mostly eliminating flights to smaller destinations served by its regional affiliate Comair.

Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport – Third largest hub for Delta, former headquarters for Northwest Airlines.

Narita International Airport – Delta's Asian hub.

Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport – One of the two European hubs for Delta. In conjunction with SkyTeam partner Air France.

Salt Lake City International Airport – Western Airlines' Salt Lake City hub operations were continued after Delta purchased Western Airlines in 1987. The Salt Lake City hub is Delta's westernmost hub and fourth largest in the United States.

Although not considered hubs Los Angeles, Washington Reagan, Miami, Orlando, New York LaGuardia, St. Louis, Boston, Chicago O'Hare, Portland (Oregon), and Seattle have large Delta operations.

Former hubs

Chicago O'Hare International Airport – Delta, until the early 1990s, operated a small hub at Chicago. It served thirteen non-stop destinations from its new Delta Flight Center, which opened in the summer of 1984. During this time Delta also maintained a flight attendant base in Chicago.

Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport – Delta at one time operated over 200 flights a day from DFW. At times, it was Delta's third largest hub behind Atlanta and Cincinnati respectively. Delta closed the hub in February 2005.

Frankfurt Airport – Delta's Frankfurt hub was acquired from Pan Am. Delta dismantled the hub in 1997.

Los Angeles International Airport – Delta dismantled its Western Airlines inherited LAX hub in the mid 1990s when it decided to relocate most of those aircraft to the US East Coast. Since that point, it has operated a focus city with a varying portfolio of destinations, of which the hallmark has been flying to Mexico, Florida, and Hawaii. Today, Delta combined maintain an 11% passenger market share with flights to Hawaii, Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Guatemala, and some of Delta's large domestic bases throughout the United States. LAX also remains Delta's sole gateway to Australia.

Orlando International Airport – Delta built up an Orlando hub shortly after the demise of Eastern Air Lines in the early 1990s, and subsequently became the "Official Airline of Walt Disney World". The airport then became the hub for Delta Express and Song, before Delta pulled back mainline presence in the mid-2000s. Orlando then became a hub for Delta Connection carriers, with a focus on regional jet point-to-point operations in the southeast. Comair and Chautauqua Airlines closed their Orlando hub operations in 2008.

Former secondary hubs

Delta has closed two secondary hubs due to changing business needs.

Memphis International Airport – MEM was a mini-hub in conjunction with regional carrier ASA. This operation ended in the mid-1980s when competition became too stiff with Republic Airlines and ASA shifted its aircraft to Delta's Dallas hub. Delta once again regained its hub status here after its merger with Northwest.

Portland International Airport – Portland, Oregon (PDX) was at one time Delta's main Asian gateway. It was closed in 2001. Northwest Airlines resumed the sole Asian flight from Portland to Tokyo in 2004; the flight is still in operation today under the Delta brand. Delta currently uses Detroit, Michigan (DTW) and Seattle, Washington (SEA) as its main Asian gateways as a result of its merger with Northwest.

Between its mainline operation and subsidiaries, Delta employs approximately 75,000 people.

Delta's approximately 12,400 pilots are represented by the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA). The union has represented Delta pilots since 1940[citation needed]. Pilot domiciles are located in Atlanta, Minneapolis, Detroit, Seattle, Memphis, Cincinnati, Los Angeles, New York City, and Salt Lake City.

The company's approximately 180 flight dispatchers are represented by the Professional Airline Flight Control Association (PAFCA).

The rest of Delta's workforce, in contrast to other legacy air carriers, is nonunion except former Northwest Airlines employees who are currently represented by various Unions pending the outcome of major union elections between Delta and former NWA employees. On March 18, 2008, Delta announced that it was offering voluntary severance payouts for up to 30,000 employees (though the target headcount reduction is significantly less than that), and that it would cut domestic capacity by 5%.

American Airlines

American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported,[6] passenger fleet size, and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. American operates an extensive international and domestic network, with scheduled flights throughout North America, Latin and South America, Europe, Asia/Pacific and the Caribbean.

American Airlines was listed at No.120 on the Fortune 500 list of companies in 2010 and is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance.


In May 2008, American served 260 cities (excluding codeshares with partner airlines) with 655 aircraft. American carries more passengers between the US and Latin America (12.1 million in 2004) than any other airline, and is also strong in the transcontinental and domestic markets.

American has five hubs: Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW), Chicago (ORD), Miami (MIA), New York (JFK), and Los Angeles (LAX).Dallas/Fort Worth is the airline's largest hub, with AA operating 85 percent of flights at the airport and traveling to more destinations than from its other hubs. New York-LaGuardia serves as a focus city. American currently operates maintenance bases at Tulsa (TUL) and Fort Worth Alliance (AFW). American closed its maintenance base at Kansas City (MCI) on September 24, 2010.

American Airlines has three regional carriers, of which two are owned by American's parent, AMR Corporation and one is owned by a third party.

American Eagle Airlines operates as "American Eagle" with hubs in Chicago O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, New York LaGuardia, Los Angeles, Miami and San Juan. The airline provides regional feed for American throughout North America, flying regional jets from American's hubs. American Eagle is wholly owned by AMR Corporation, the parent company of American Airlines.

Executive Airlines operates as "American Eagle" with hubs in Miami and San Juan. Executive flies Super ATR turboprops throughout the Caribbean. Executive Airlines is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Eagle and, by extension, AMR.

Chautauqua Airlines operates as "AmericanConnection", feeding American's flights from its Chicago O'Hare Hub (transferred from St Louis April 6, 2010). Chautauqua is owned by Republic Airways Holdings, a separate company with no affiliation to AMR



American Airways was developed from a conglomeration of 82 small airlines through acquisitions and reorganizations: initially, American Airways was a common brand by a number of independent carriers. These included Southern Air Transport in Texas, Southern Air Fast Express (SAFE) in the western US, Universal Aviation in the Midwest (which operated a transcontinental air/rail route in 1929), Thompson Aeronautical Services (which operated a Detroit-Cleveland route beginning in 1929) and Colonial Air Transport in the Northeast.

On January 25, 1930, American Airways was incorporated as a single company, based in New York, with routes from Boston, New York and Chicago to Dallas, and from Dallas to Los Angeles. The airline operated wood and fabric-covered Fokker Trimotors and all-metal Ford Trimotors. In 1934 American began flying Curtiss Condor biplanes with sleeping berths.

American Airlines before World War II

In 1934, American Airways Company was acquired by E.L. Cord, who renamed it "American Air Lines". Cord hired Texas businessman C.R. (Cyrus Rowlett) Smith to run the company.
Smith worked with Donald Douglas to develop the DC-3, which American Airlines started flying in 1936. With the DC-3, American began calling its aircraft "Flagships" and establishing the Admirals Club for valued passengers. The DC-3s had a four-star "admiral's pennant" outside the cockpit window while the aircraft was parked, one of the most well-known images of the airline at the time.

American Airlines was first to cooperate with Fiorello LaGuardia to build an airport in New York City, and partly as a result became owner of the world's first airline lounge at the new LaGuardia Airport (LGA), which became known as the Admirals Club. Membership was initially by invitation only, but a discrimination suit decades later changed the club into a paid club, creating the model for other airline lounges.

Postwar developments

After World War II, American acquired American Export Airlines, renaming it as American Overseas Airlines, to serve Europe; AOA was sold to Pan Am in 1950. AA launched another subsidiary, Líneas Aéreas Americanas de Mexico S.A., to fly to Mexico and built several airports there. American Airlines provided advertising and free usage of its aircraft in the 1951 film Three Guys Named Mike. Until Capital merged into United in 1961, AA was the largest American airline, which meant second largest in the world, after Aeroflot.
American Airlines introduced the first transcontinental jet service using Boeing 707s on January 25, 1959. With its 707s American shifted to nonstop coast-to-coast flights, although it maintained feeder connections to cities along its old route using smaller Convair 990s and Lockheed Electras. American invested $440 million in jet aircraft up to 1962, launched the first electronic booking system (Sabre) with IBM, and built an upgraded terminal at Idlewild (now JFK) Airport in New York City which became the airline's largest base. In the 1960s, Mattel released a series of American Airlines stewardess Barbie dolls, signifying their growing commercial success. Vignelli Associates designed the AA eagle logo in 1967. Vignelli attributes the introduction of his firm to American Airlines to Henry Dreyfuss, the legendary AA design consultant. The logo is still in use today.

By September 1970, American Airlines was offering its first long haul international flights from the West Coast to Honolulu and on to Sydney and Auckland via American Samoa and Nadi.

A fictitious "American Airlines Space Freighter", the Valley Forge, was the setting for the 1971 science fiction movie Silent Running, starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull. The freighter featured the then-new "AA" logo on the hull, along with the crew uniforms and several set pieces.

On March 30, 1973 AA became the first major airline to employ a female pilot when Bonnie Tiburzi was hired to fly Boeing 727s. American Airlines has been innovative in other aspects initiating several of the industry's major competitive developments including computer reservations systems, frequent flyer loyalty programs and two-tier wage scales

Expansion in the 1980s and 1990s

After moving headquarters to Fort Worth in 1979, American changed its routing to a hub-and-spoke system in 1981, opening its first hubs at DFW and Chicago O'Hare. Led by its new chairman and CEO, Robert Crandall, American began flights from these hubs to Europe and Japan in the mid-1980s.

In the late 1980s, American opened three hubs for north-south traffic. San Jose International Airport was added after American purchased AirCal. American also built a terminal and runway at Raleigh-Durham International Airport for the growing Research Triangle Park nearby and compete with USAir's hub in Charlotte. Nashville was also a hub. In 1988, American Airlines received its first Airbus A300B4-605R aircraft.
In 1990, American Airlines bought the assets of TWA's operations at London Heathrow for $445 million, giving American a hub there. The US/UK Bermuda II treaty, in effect until open skies came into effect in April 2008, barred U.S. airlines from Heathrow with the sole exceptions of American and United Airlines.

Lower fuel prices and a favorable business climate led to higher than average profits in the 1990s. The industry's expansion was not lost on pilots who on February 17, 1997 went on strike for higher wages. President Bill Clinton invoked the Railway Labor Act citing economic impact to the United States, quashing the strike. Pilots settled for wages lower than their demands.

The three new hubs were abandoned in the 1990s: some San Jose facilities were sold to Reno Air, and at Raleigh/Durham to Midway Airlines. Midway went out of business in 2001. American purchased Reno Air in February 1999 and integrated its operations on August 31, 1999, but did not resume hub operations in San Jose. American discontinued most of Reno Air's routes, and sold most of the Reno Air aircraft, as they had with Air California 12 years earlier. The only remaining route from the Air California and Reno Air purchases is San Francisco to Los Angeles.

During this time, concern over airline bankruptcies and falling stock prices brought a warning from American's CEO Robert Crandall. "I've never invested in any airline", Crandall said. "I'm an airline manager. I don't invest in airlines. And I always said to the employees of American, 'This is not an appropriate investment. It's a great place to work and it's a great company that does important work. But airlines are not an investment.'" Crandall noted that since airline deregulation of the 1970s, 150 airlines had gone out of business. "A lot of people came into the airline business. Most of them promptly exited, minus their money", he said.

Miami became a hub after American bought Central and South American routes from Eastern Air Lines in 1990 (inherited from Braniff International Airways but originated by Panagra). Through the 1990s, American expanded its network in Latin America to become the dominant U.S. carrier in the region.

On October 15, 1998 American Airlines became the first airline to offer electronic ticketing in the 44 countries it serves.

In 1999 American Airlines, together with British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Canadian Airlines and Qantas, founded the global airline alliance Oneworld.

TWA merger and 9/11 to the present

Robert Crandall left in 1998 and was replaced by Donald J. Carty, who negotiated the purchase of the near bankrupt Trans World Airlines (it would file for its 3rd bankruptcy as part of the purchase agreement) and its hub in St. Louis in April 2001.

The merger of seniority lists remains contentious for pilots; the groups were represented by different unions. In the merger, 60 percent of former TWA pilots moved to the bottom of the seniority list at AA. Many were furloughed, and most remain on furlough. The senior TWA captains were integrated at the same seniority level as AA captains hired years later.[citation needed] All TWA captains and first officers hired in March 1989 and later were appended to the seniority list junior to American Airlines first officers hired in June 2001. The senior TWA pilots were able to stay in captain's seats at a higher pay rate with American and were working for a solvent company. The junior TWA pilots were mostly furloughed. On the AA side the captains were mostly unaffected except that AMR inherited TWA debt which decreased the solvency of their parent company. The AA first officers saw hundreds of TWA captains maintain their captain seats even as the company downsized after the 9/11 attacks and subsequent financial crises. The extensive furloughs of former TWA pilots in the wake of the 9/11 attacks disproportionately affected St. Louis and resulted in a significant influx of American Airlines pilots into this base. For cabin crews, all former TWA flight attendants (approximately 4,200) were furloughed by mid-2003 due to the AA flight attendants' union putting TWA flight attendants at the bottom of their seniority list.

American Airlines began losing money in the wake of the TWA merger and the September 11, 2001, attacks (in which two of its planes were involved). Carty negotiated wage and benefit agreements with the unions but resigned after union leaders discovered he was planning to award executive compensation packages at the same time. This undermined AA's attempts to increase trust with its workforce and to increase its productivity . The St. Louis hub was also downsized.

In 2002, the airline received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign in 2002 and has maintained their rating in respect to policies on employees.

AA has undergone additional cost-cutting, including rolling back its "More Room Throughout Coach" program (which eliminated several rows of seats on certain aircraft), ending three-class service on many international flights, and standardizing its fleet at each hub (see below). However, the airline also expanded into new markets, including Ireland, India and mainland China. On July 20, 2005, American announced a quarterly profit for the first time in 17 quarters; the airline earned $58 million in the second quarter of 2005.
AA was a strong backer of the Wright Amendment, which regulated commercial airline operations at Love Field in Dallas. On June 15, 2006, American agreed with Southwest Airlines and the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth to seek repeal of the Wright Amendment on condition that Love Field remained a domestic airport and its gate capacity be limited.

In May 2008, a month after mass grounding of aircraft, American announced capacity cuts and fees to increase revenue and help cover high fuel prices. The airline increased fees such as a $15 charge for the first checked bag and $25 for the second, as well as a $150 change fee for domestic reservations. American's regional airline, American Eagle Airlines, will retire 35 to 40 regional jets as well as its Saab turboprop fleet.

On July 2, 2008, American announced furloughs of up to 950 flight attendants, via Texas' Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act system. This furlough is in addition to the furlough of 20 MD-80 aircraft. American's hub at San Juan, Puerto Rico's Luiz Muñoz Marin International Airport, will be truncated from 38 to 18 daily inbound flights, but the carrier will retain service in a diminished capacity

On August 13, 2008, The Kansas City Star reported that American would move some overhaul work from its Kansas City, Missouri, base. Repairs on Boeing 757s will be made in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and some 767 maintenance will move there as well; one, possibly two, Boeing 767 repair lines will be retained at Kansas City International Airport. The narrow-body repair hangar will be shut. The city's aviation department offered to upgrade repair facilities on condition that the airline maintain at least 700 jobs.

On June 26, 2009, rumors of a merger with US Airways resurfaced to much speculation within the online aviation community.

In August 2009, American was placed under credit watch, along with United Airlines and US Airways.[citation needed] All Airbus A300 jets were retired by the end of August and are currently stored in Roswell, New Mexico.

On October 28, 2009, American notified its employees that it would close its Kansas City maintenance base in September 2010, and would also close or make cutbacks at five smaller maintenance stations, resulting in the loss of up to 700 jobs.

In early July 2010, it was reported that American Airlines was trying to find buyers for its regional airline American Eagle. The move followed Delta Air Lines and its spin off of its wholly owned regionnes

MD-80 maintenance controversies

American Airlines has had repeated run-ins with the FAA regarding maintenance of its MD-80 fleet; the costs associated with operating these jets has affected American's bottom line. American Airlines canceled 1,000 flights to inspect wire bundles over three days in April 2008 to make sure they complied with government safety regulations. This caused significant inconvenience to passengers and financial problems for the airline. American has begun the process of replacing its older MD-80 jets with Boeing 737s. The newer MD-80s will continue to serve until the next generation Boeing narrowbody aircraft (Boeing Y1) is available.

In September 2009, the Associated Press and The Wall Street Journal reported that American was accused of hiding repeated maintenance lapses on at least 16 MD-80s from the FAA. Repair issues included such items as faulty emergency slides, improper engine coatings, incorrectly drilled holes and other examples of shoddy workmanship. The most serious alleged lapse is a failure to repair cracks to pressure bulkheads; the rupture of a bulkhead could lead to cabin depressurization. It is also alleged that the airline retired one airplane in order to hide it from FAA inspectors; the airline countered that FAA inspectors always have full access to any airplane, retired or not.

Potential negotiations with Japan Airlines

On September 12, 2009, American Airlines' parent company, AMR Corporation announced that they were looking into buying some of the financially struggling Japan Airlines.[31] AMR is not the only company planning to buy a stake in the airline: rival Delta Air Lines is also looking into investing in the troubled airline, along with Delta's partner Air France-KLM. Both Delta and AF-KLM are part of SkyTeam, Oneworld's alliance rival.[32] Japan Airlines called off negotiations of the possible deal with all airlines on October 5, 2009.

On October 21, 2009, Gerard Arpey, the CEO of American Airlines, said the airline and its Oneworld Alliance of global airlines remains committed to a partnership with Japan Airlines, as long as the carrier remains a major international carrier.

On November 18, 2009, Delta Air Lines, with help from TPG, made a bid of $1 billion for JAL to partner with them. Two days later, reports came from Japan that AA and TPG had teamed up and made a $1.5 billion cash offer to JAL, which they might consider doing.
On February 9, 2010, Japan Airlines officially announced that it will strengthen its relationship with American Airlines and Oneworld.

On January 11, 2011, both JAL and American Airlines announced that they will start their joint-venture operation starting April 1, 2011.

Recent developments

Antitrust immunity
In February 2010, the USDOT granted AA preliminary antitrust immunity to allow the airline to work with British Airways, Iberia Airlines, Finnair and Royal Jordanian Airlines on transatlantic routes. The partnership was officially approved by the USDOT on July 20, 2010.

On October 1, American, British Airways, and Iberia launched their joint venture, enabling, among other things, frequent flyers to earn and redeem miles on each other's flights.

Less than a week after American's transatlantic joint venture was launched, the DOT gave preliminary approval to American's new transpacific joint venture with Japan Airlines on October 7, Japan gave final approval to the venture later that month.[40] and the immunity grant was finalized in early November 2010

Expanded New York City service

Antitrust immunity

In February 2010, the USDOT granted AA preliminary antitrust immunity to allow the airline to work with British Airways, Iberia Airlines, Finnair and Royal Jordanian Airlines on transatlantic routes. The partnership was officially approved by the USDOT on July 20, 2010.On October 1, American, British Airways, and Iberia launched their joint venture, enabling, among other things, frequent flyers to earn and redeem miles on each other's flights.

Less than a week after American's transatlantic joint venture was launched, the DOT gave preliminary approval to American's new transpacific joint venture with Japan Airlines on October 7,Japan gave final approval to the venture later that month. and the immunity grant was finalized in early November 2010.

Expanded New York City service

On March 31, 2010, American announced an expansion of its New York City service, both at JFK and LaGuardia Airports, in addition to a partnership with JetBlue.


American added several routes from LaGuardia, including service to Atlanta, Charlotte, and Minneapolis/St.Paul. All of these routes are flown with CRJ-700 aircraft outfitted with First Class seating. Also, American is looking to refurbish the Admirals Club at LaGuardia and find a way to connect Concourse C and D so that passengers connecting between the two concourses do not have to reclear security, and so that passengers whose flights depart from Concourse C can use the Admiral's Club, located in Concourse D. Concourse D is also going to be renovated.


At JFK Airport, American added new routes to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Madrid, Spain, and San Jose, Costa Rica. American is going to add 3,000 square feet (280 m2) to its 11,000-square-foot (1,000 m2) existing Admirals Club in the C Concourse of Terminal 8. Also, American and British Airways are looking into building onto the existing Terminal 8, allowing the two carriers to co-locate and make for easier connections

Partnership with JetBlue

On March 31, 2010, American and JetBlue announced a partnership regarding the interlining of routes between the airlines. 27 of JetBlue's destinations that are not served by American and 13 of American's international destinations from New York and Boston are included in the agreement. Also, American is giving JetBlue 8 slot pairs (a slot pair is one arrival slot and one departure slot) at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and 1 slot pair at Westchester County Airport. In return, JetBlue is giving American 12 slot pairs at JFK Airport.

On July 19, 2010, AA announced that, by the end of 2010, flyers will be able to receive either AAdvantage miles or TrueBlue points on their interline itineraries connecting in JFK or Boston.Effective November 18, 2010, the two airlines will give the traveler miles in either program when flying on a qualifying route, regardless of whether the travels include an international connection.

It has also been confirmed that the two airlines have been negotiating a codeshare arrangement between themselves, though no agreement has been signed yet.

Expanded Los Angeles service

On October 20, 2010, American announced new and upgraded domestic service from LAX Airport in Los Angeles. New routes include service to Houston, Phoenix, Salt Lake City, and Shanghai , all on American Eagle with the exception of Shanghai. The four-times-daily service between LAX and Denver is also being upgraded to the CRJ-700, which includes a first class cabin. Furthermore, American is increasing frequencies between LAX and Chicago, Dallas, Miami, Las Vegas, and Orlando

New routes

Haneda Airport, Tokyo

On February 16, 2010, American applied to the US Department of Transportation to begin nonstop service to Tokyo's Haneda Airport. American planned to begin service beginning October 1, 2010 from New York-JFK and Los Angeles with Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. On May 7, 2010, the US Department of Transportation tentatively awarded American Airlines the right to begin nonstop service from JFK Airport to Tokyo-Haneda, but denied American's bid to serve Haneda from LAX. American planned to begin service to Tokyo-Haneda from JFK on January 20, 2011; however, the airline decided to postpone the service until February 18, 2011 citing low booking demand.

Shanghai and further China expansion

On October 1, 2010, American announced that it will file an application to the US Department of Transportation to operate daily nonstop flights between Los Angeles and Shanghai, China. The airline was granted approval from the US DOT to begin the Los Angeles-Shanghai route on April 5, 2011.The airline is also considering on flying to Hong Kong and Guangzhou.

Dispute with Expedia and Orbitz

Since late 2010, American Airlines has been involved in a dispute with two online ticketing agencies, Expedia and Orbitz.This relates to American's "Direct Connect" fare booking system for large travel agents, which Expedia claimed might raise costs and was less transparent for passengers. The Direct Connect allows American to exert more control over their distribution, save costs and better sell ancillary services to their customers.In December 2010 American pulled their price listings from Orbitz, and on January 1, 2011, Expedia removed American Airline's fares from their site.

Company affairs and image


Airlines is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, adjacent to the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

Before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City.In 1978 American announced that it would move its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport in 1979. The move affected up to 1,300 jobs. Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described this move as a "betrayal" of New York City.[62] American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, Texas.The airline finished moving into a $150 million (1983 dollars), 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) facility in Fort Worth on January 17, 1983; $147 million in Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport bonds financed the headquarters. The airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility.


The Allied Pilots Association is the in-house union which represents the 12 thousand American Airlines pilots. The union was created in 1963 after the pilots disposed of the ALPA union.


In 1967, Massimo Vignelli designed the famous AA logo.Thirty years later, in 1997, American Airlines was able to make its logo internet-compatible by buying the domain also corresponds to the Airlines IATA number. The original AA logo is still in use today, being "one of the few logos that simply needs no change".

In March 2000, American received the CIO Magazine's 2000 Web Business 50/50 Award for its web site.

Environmental record

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has awarded American Airlines its 2005 Governor's Award for its outstanding efforts in environmental protection and pollution prevention. American Airline's wastewater treatment plant recycles water used at the base of the wash aircraft, process rinse water tanks, and irrigates landscape. That alone has saved almost $1 million since 2002. In addition to that, American Airlines has also won the award for the reduction of hazardous waste that saved them $229,000 after a $2,000 investment. A bar code system is used to track hazardous waste. It has led to reduction of waste by 50 percent since 2000.

Violations occurring over a 4½ year period – from October 1993 to July 1998 – targeted American Airlines for using high-sulfur fuel in motor vehicles at 10 major airports around the country. Under the federal Clean Air Act high sulfur fuel cannot be used in motor vehicles. American Airlines promptly identified and corrected these violations of the Clean Air Act.



American's early liveries varied widely, but a common livery was adopted in the 1930s, featuring an eagle painted on the fuselage. The eagle became a symbol of the company and inspired the name of American Eagle Airlines. Propeller aircraft featured an international orange lightning bolt running down the length of the fuselage, which was replaced by a simpler orange stripe with the introduction of jets.

In the late 1960s, American commissioned an industrial designer to develop a new livery. The original design called for a red, white, and blue stripe on the fuselage, and a simple "AA" logo, without an eagle, on the tail. However, American's employees revolted when the livery was made public, and launched a "Save the Eagle" campaign similar to the "Save the Flying Red Horse" campaign at Mobil. Eventually, the designer caved in and created a highly stylized eagle, which remains the company's logo to this day. In 1999, American painted a new Boeing 757 (N679AN) in its 1959 international orange livery. There is a Boeing 737–800 painted in the retro AstroJet livery. One Boeing 777 and one Boeing 757 are painted in standard livery with a pink ribbon on the sides and on the tail, in support for the Susan G. Komen for the Cure.

American is the only major U.S. airline that leaves the majority of its aircraft surfaces unpainted. This was because C. R. Smith hated painted aircraft, and refused to use any liveries that involved painting the entire plane. Robert "Bob" Crandall later justified the distinctive natural metal finish by noting that less paint reduced the aircraft's weight, thus saving on fuel costs. Eastern Air Lines, US Airways, Flying Tigers, Dominicana, Cathay Pacific Cargo and Northwest Airlines have also maintained unpainted airplanes.

NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, with the registry N905NA, originally belonged to American Airlines, and in its early years still bore the distinct American pinstriping. By the early 1980s, however, NASA decided to discontinue using the American livery and replaced it with its own livery, consisting of a white fuselage and blue pinstriping.


American Airlines serves four continents, trailing Continental Airlines that serves five, and Delta Air Lines and United Airlines that both serve six. Hubs at Dallas/Fort Worth and Miami serve as gateways to the Americas, while American's Chicago hub has become the airline's primary gateway to Europe and Asia. New York Kennedy (JFK) is a primary gateway for both the Americas and Europe, while the Los Angeles hub (LAX) is the primary gateway to the Asia/Pacific. Lambert-St. Louis International Airport has served as a regional as well for several years. However, the airline's 2009 restructuring led to the airport being removed as a focus city on April 5, 2010. American serves the third largest number of international destinations, after Continental Airlines and Delta Air Lines.

American is the only U.S. airline with scheduled flights to Anguilla, Bolivia, Dominica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Uruguay.

American has begun to expand in Asia, with mixed success. In 2005, American re-introduced a non-stop flight from Dallas/Fort Worth to Osaka-Kansai, which has since been discontinued. American also launched non-stop service from Chicago to Nagoya-Centrair, but that too ended within a year. Also in 2005, American launched service from Chicago to Delhi. In April 2006, American began service from Chicago to Shanghai. However, in October 2006, American ceased its San Jose, California to Tokyo-Narita service, leaving LAX as American's sole international gateway on the West Coast. American planned flights between Dallas/Fort Worth and Beijing via Chicago-O'Hare (on Westbound only) in 2007 but lost its bid to United Airlines' Dulles to Beijing route. AA was granted permission in September 2007 to start a Chicago-Beijing route in a new set of China routes in 2009, that was originally planned to begin service on April 4, 2010. American Airlines then delayed the launched for the Beijing flight to May 1, 2010 due to rising fuel prices and the weak economy. After numerous delays, the airline finally announced that it will launch flights to the Chinese capital on April 26, 2010.Because of a lack of proper landing clearance from the Chinese government, the airline was forced to cancel its inaugural flight from Chicago to Beijing tentatively until at least May 4, 2010. The airline launched service to Beijing on May 25, 2010. As stated above, AA has also applied for and won service between New York and Tokyo Haneda Airport, and between Los Angeles and Shanghai Pudong Airport-that which began on February 18, 2011 and April 5, 2011, respectively.

Saturday, 18 June 2011



The President and CEO of Southwest is Gary C. Kelly. Kelly replaced former CEO Jim Parker on July 15, 2004 and assumed the title of "President" on July 15, 2008, replacing former PresidentColleen Barrett.
Former CEO Jim Parker led Southwest from mid-2001, keeping alive Southwest's unprecedented streak of profitability and guiding its growth as it became the largest commercial carrier in the domestic United States. Jim Parker abruptly quit as CEO and vice chairman for "personal reasons" though it's suspected that he stepped down after failing to reach an agreement with the flight attendant union, TWU Local 556, which made their labor strife (and displeasure with the Southwest CEO) public.]
Southwest's CFO is Laura Wright. In July 2007, Herb Kelleher resigned his position as Chairman.Colleen Barrett left her post on the Board of Directors and Corporate Secretary in May 2008 and President in July 2008. Both are still active employees of Southwest Airlines.
Southwest hired its first black pilot, Louis Freeman, in 1980. In 1992, he was named the first blackchief pilot of any major U.S. airline.

Organized labor

In contrast to non-union competitor JetBlue Airways, Southwest maintains its profitability and low-fare, low-cost business model despite being heavily unionized. The Southwest Airline Pilots' Association, a union not affiliated with the Air Line Pilots Association, represents the airline's pilots. The Aircraft Maintenance Technicians' are represented by the Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Association (AMFA). Customer Service Agents and Reservation Agents are represented by the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers Union (IAM). Flight Dispatchers, Flight Attendants, Ramp agents and Operations agents are represented by the Transport Workers Union (TWU). Acquisitions
As of May 2011 Southwest Airlines has completed four acquisitions which have helped the airline to grow its revenue base and destinations served.
Muse Air – acquired 1985, divested 1987
Southwest paid US$60.5 million in stock and cash for Muse Air when Muse was on the verge of collapse in 1985. After completing the acquisition, Southwest renamed MuseAir TranStar Airlines. TranStar became a wholly owned subsidiary of Southwest and operated as an independent airline. Unwilling to compete in a fare war against Frank Lorenzo's Texas Air, Southwest sold TransStar's assets to Lorenzo in August 1987.
Morris Air – acquired 1993
Southwest acquired Morris Air, a competing airline based in Salt Lake City, Utah, in 1992, paying US$134 million in stock. After completing the purchase, Southwest absorbed the capital and routes of Morris Air into Southwest's inventory and service, including Morris' Pacific Northwest destinations not previously served by Southwest. One founder of Morris Air, David Neeleman, worked with Southwest for a short period before leaving to found JetBlue Airways, a competing airline.
ATA Airlines – acquired 2008
Southwest paid US$7.5 million to acquire certain assets from bankrupt ATA Airlines in 2008. Southwest's primary reason for making the purchase was to acquire the operating certificate and New York LaGuardia Airport landing slots formerly controlled by ATA. The purchase did not include any aircraft, facilities or employees of ATA.
AirTran Airways – acquired 2011

On May 2, 2011 Southwest Airlines completed the acquisition of AirTran Airways by purchasing all of the outstanding common stock of AirTran Holdings, Inc. (former stock ticker NYSE:AAI), the former parent company of AirTran Airways. Southwest Airlines first announced the acquisition on September 27, 2010 and received final approval from the United States Department of Justice on April 27, 2011. Southwest Airlines estimates the transaction's value at $3.2 billion and expects one time costs to integrate the two airlines of US$500 million. Southwest expects to obtain a single operating certificate from the United States Federal Aviation Administration in the first quarter of 2012, but expects that full integration of AirTran into Southwest's operations will take several years.
Southwest Airlines will add AirTran Airways's 88 Boeing 717 aircraft to the Southwest fleet and plans to begin changing AirTran liveried aircraft to the Southwest livery beginning in 2012. After the close of the acquisition the combined fleet of the two airlines numbered 690 aircraft.
The purchase expanded Southwest's service to 38 additional destinations including Mexico, the Caribbean, and Atlanta, an AirTran hub and the largest U.S. city not served by Southwest prior to the acquisition. Traditionally averse to hub operations, Southwest Airlines CEO Gary Kelly believed at the time the acquisition closed that Southwest needed to fully understand the airline's operations in Atlanta before making any changes at that airport.
Failed acquisitions
In its attempts to grow revenues through acquisitions, Southwest has not always succeeded.
Frontier Airlines – 2009
On July 30, 2009, Southwest Airlines announced a $113.6 million bid for bankrupt Frontier Airlines Holdings, the parent company of Frontier Airlines. Southwest planned to initially operate Frontier as a stand-alone carrier, eventually absorbing the airline and replacing Frontier's aircraft with Boeing 737s. Less than one month after submitting its bid, Southwest learned on August 14 that it had lost the bidding toRepublic Airways Holdings. Industry experts had expected Southwest to win the bidding, allowing Southwest to grow its presence in Denver and serve international destinations. Southwest stated that its requirement for pilots' unions at both companies to reach an agreement as a condition of acquisition was a key factor in losing the bid.
Jet engine pressure-washing
In 2008, Southwest contracted with Pratt and Whitney to supply the proprietary Ecopower water pressure-washing system, which allows Southwest to clean grime and contaminants off engine turbine blades while the aircraft is parked at the gate. Frequent use of the Ecopower system is estimated to improve fuel efficiency by about 1.9%.
Internet presence
On March 16, 1995, Southwest became one of the first airlines to have a website. Originally called the "Southwest Airlines Home Gate", passengers could view schedules, a route map, and company information at is the number one airline website for online revenue, according to PhoCusWright. Nielsen/Netratings also reports that is the largest airline site in terms of unique visitors.[4] In 2006, 70 percent of flight bookings and 73 percent of revenue was generated from bookings on As of June 2007, 69 percent of Southwest passengers checked in for their flights online or at a kiosk.
Safety violations
On March 6, 2008, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) inspectors submitted documents to the United States Congress, alleging that Southwest allowed 117 of its aircraft to fly carrying passengers despite the fact that the planes were "not airworthy" according to air safety investigators  In some cases the planes were allowed to fly for up to 30 months after the inspection deadlines had passed, rendering them unfit to fly. Records indicate that thousands of passengers were flown on aircraft deemed unsafe by federal standards. Southwest declined comment at the time, and US Representative James Oberstar advised a hearing would be held]
On March 12, 2008, Southwest Airlines voluntarily grounded 44 planes to check if they needed further inspection. The FAA claimed that Southwest Airlines flew almost 60,000 flights without fuselage inspection. Southwest Airlines faced a $10.2 million fine if they violated FAA regulations. There have also been rumors that the FAA knew about Southwest Airlines violations but decided not to fine the airline because it would disrupt the service of Southwest.
On March 2, 2009, Southwest settled these claims, agreeing to pay the FAA fines of $7.5 million for these safety and maintenance issues. The original fine of $10.2 million – a sum which would have been the largest fine in the agency’s history – was lowered after a year of negotiations. The FAA gave Southwest two years in which to pay the fine.
On August 26, 2009 the FAA investigated Southwest for installing improper parts on about 10% of its jets. The work was performed by an outside maintenance company. The FAA stated that the parts do not present a safety danger, but the airline was given until December 24, 2009 to replace the parts with those approved by the FAA.The FAA is still determining whether it will fine Southwest or its vendor
The Southwest Airlines headquarters are located on the grounds of Dallas Love Field in the Love Field neighborhood of Dallas, Texas.
Previously the airline was headquartered in the 1820 Regal Row building in Dallas, by Love Field. Southwest moved into its current headquarters in 1990. At that time the headquarters had 256,000 square feet (23,800 m2) of space and approximately 650 employees. The current headquarters facility was built at a cost of $15 million in 1990 dollars.[ In early 1995 the building received an additional 60,000 square feet (5,600 m2) of space. As of 2006 about 1,400 employees worked in the three story building.
In March 1996, the airline announced that it would begin to build a 300,000 square feet (28,000 m2) addition to the existing corporate headquarters at a cost of $30 million in 1996 dollars. This occurred after, on Wednesday March 13, 1996, the Dallas City Council unanimously voted to allow for the construction. The airline leased two additional tracts of land, a total of 10 acres (4.0 ha) of space, from the City of Dallas to build a new pilot training facility, a headquarters expansion, and additional parking spaces. A $9.8 million new pilot training facility was built on a 5 acres (2.0 ha) plot of land owned by the city of Dallas; it was scheduled to be completed Spring 1997. With the new pilot training facility built, the old one would be removed and the company would expand its headquarters building to the north. 120,000 square feet (11,000 m2) of building space, which had a price of $16 million including fixtures, was built, making the headquarters have a total of 436,000 square feet (40,500 m2). The airline also leased 4.8 acres (1.9 ha) from the city of Dallas to build additional parking; 700 spaces were added to the existing 1,200. After the facilities announced in 1996 were added, Southwest had a total leasehold of about 24 acres (9.7 ha) of land, including its headquarters, training facilities, and parking. By the end of 1997 the expansion of the facilities at Love Field and several terminal improvements were expected to cost Southwest $47 million

Risk management

Southwest Airlines has gained a reputation for "outside the box thinking" a proactive risk management, including the use of fuel hedging to insulate against fuel price fluctuation. Some analysts have argued against the style of profit-motivated energy trading Southwest did between 1999 and the early 2000s. They suggested that rather than hedging business risk (such as a hedge on weather to a farmer), Southwest was simply speculating on energy prices, without a formal rationale for doing so.
At present, Southwest has enjoyed much positive press (and a strong financial boost) from its energy trading skills .However, while most analysts agree that volatility hedges can be beneficial, speculative hedges are not widely supported as a continuing strategy for profits.
In the third quarter of 2008, Southwest recorded its first loss in 17 years due to its fuel-hedging contracts being of lesser value because of the drop in oil prices


Southwest Airlines Co

 (NYSE: LUV) is an American airline based in Dallas, Texas. Southwest is the largest airline in the United States, based on domestic passengers carried, as of June 30, 2010.[2] Southwest operates more than 3,400 flights a day, as of March 2011, utilizing a fleet of 552 aircraft


Southwest Airlines traces its roots to the March 15, 1967 incorporation of Air Southwest Co. byRollin King and Herb Kelleher to provide service within the state of Texas

Legal action by competitors

Kelleher believed that by providing intrastate service within Texas, the airline could avoid federal regulation. Three incumbent airlines, Braniff, Trans-Texas, and Continental Airlines, initiated legal action which was not resolved for three years. Air Southwest prevailed in 1970 when theTexas Supreme Court upheld Air Southwest’s right to fly within Texas. The Texas Supreme Court's decision became final on December 7, 1970, when the U.S. Supreme Court declined to review the case without comment.

The story of Southwest’s legal fight was turned into a children’s book, Gumwrappers and Gogglesby Winifred Barnum in 1983. In the story, TJ Love, a small jet, is taken to court by two larger jets to keep him from their hangar and to stop him from flying. In court, TJ Love’s right to fly is upheld after an impassioned plea from a character referred to as "The Lawyer". While no company names are mentioned in the book, TJ Love’s colors are those of Southwest Airlines, and the two other jets are colored in Braniff and Continental’s colors. The Lawyer is designed to resemble Herb Kelleher. The book was adapted into a stage musical, Show Your Spirit, sponsored by Southwest Airlines, and played only in towns serviced by the airline
Name change and first revenue flight

On March 29, 1971, Air Southwest Co. changed its name to Southwest Airlines Co. Operating from its Dallas, Texas headquarters, Southwest Airlines began customer service on June 18, 1971, offering service to the Texas cities of Houston, Dallas and San Antonio using three Boeing 737 aircraft

Early corporate culture

Southwest Airlines founder Herb Kelleher studied California-based Airlines extensively and used many of the airline’s ideas to form the corporate culture at Southwest, and even on early flights used the same "Long Legs And Short Nights" theme for stewardesses on board typical Southwest Airlines flights. The original flight attendants that worked for Southwest Airlines were chosen by a committee of individuals that included the same person who had selected hostess for Hugh Hefner’s Playboy jet. The selection resulted in a group of female flight attendants that were described as long-legged dancers, majorettes, and cheerleaders with "unique personalities". Southwest Airlines and Herb Kelleher proceeded to dress these individuals in hot pants and go-go boots

Early losses and financial troubles
The rest of 1971 and 1972 saw operating losses. One of the four aircraft was sold to Frontier Airlines and the proceeds used to make payroll and cover other expenses. Southwest continued to operate a schedule predicated on four aircraft but using only three, and in so doing the "ten minute turn" was born, and was the standard ground time for many years.

Wright Amendment

When airline deregulation came in 1978, Southwest began planning to offer interstate service from Love Field. This caused a number of interest groups affiliated with Dallas-Ft. Worth Airport, including the city of Fort Worth, to push the Wright Amendment through Congress to restrict such flights.[13] Under the restrictions of the amendment, Southwest, and all other airlines, were barred from operating, or even ticketing passengers on flights from Love Field to destinations beyond the states immediately surrounding Texas. In effect, to travel through Love Field, a passenger and luggage would have to deplane and fly on a separate ticket, on a separate aircraft
The Wright Amendment’s restrictions did not apply to aircraft configured with 56 or fewer seats. In 2000, Legend Airlines attempted to operate long distance business-class flights using older DC-9s with 56 seats, but did not have the resources to survive American Airlines's legal and marketing attacks, and quickly ceased operations. Southwest did not use the 56 seat loophole, even with its market strength at Love Field and the availability of more modern regional jets such as the CRJ-700/900 and the Embraer ERJ 145 family.

Southwest’s efforts to repeal or even alter the Wright Amendment were met with opposition from American Airlines and Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport. Both American Airlines and DFW contended that repeal of the Wright Amendment restrictions would cripple DFW, while Southwest contended that repeal of the Wright Amendment would be beneficial to both Love Field and DFW.[citation needed] Continental Airlines has a successful hub and spoke operation atHouston Bush Intercontinental Airport despite unrestricted competition from Southwest at Houston Hobby Airport.

In 1990 the airline registered its aircraft in Houston so it could pay aircraft taxes in Houston, even though the actual corporate headquarters were in Dallas. Southwest was not physically relocating any assets, but Texas state law allowed the airline to choose either Dallas or Houston as the city of registry of its aircraft.[
In 1997, Southwest’s efforts began to pay off with the Shelby Amendment, which added the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Kansas to the list of permissible destination states. Southwest began offering non-stop service between Dallas Love Field and Birmingham, Alabama, which it could not do prior to the enactment of the Shelby Amendment.
In late 2004, Southwest began actively seeking the full repeal of the Wright Amendment restrictions. In late 2005, Missouri was added to the list of permissible destination states via a transportation appropriations bill. New service from Love Field to St. Louis and Kansas City quickly started in December 2005.
At a June 15, 2006 joint press conference held by the city of Dallas, the city of Ft. Worth, Dallas-Ft. Worth Airport, American Airlines, and Southwest Airlines, the said parties announced a tentative agreement on how the Wright Amendment was to be phased out. Both the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives passed Wright-related legislation on September 29, 2006, and it was signed into law by PresidentGeorge W. Bush on October 13, 2006. The new law became effective on October 16, 2006, when the FAA Administrator notified Congress that any new aviation operations occurring as a result of the new law could be accommodated without adverse effect to the airspace]
Southwest started selling tickets under the new law on October 19, 2006. Highlights of the agreement are the immediate elimination of through-ticketing prohibitions, and unrestricted flights to domestic destinations eight years after the legislation takes effect. Because of the agreement, nationwide service became possible for Southwest; the law also defined the maximum number of gates at Love Field. Southwest controls all of the Love Field gates except for four gates controlled by American Airlines, Continental Airlines, and Delta Air Lines. The future of the Legend Airlines terminal for use by commercial airlines is in doubt because of the limit on number of gates.Southwest remains the dominant passenger airline at Love Field, maintains its headquarters, hangars, training centers, and flight simulators adjacent thereto, and reflects its ties to Love Field in its ticker symbol (LUV)